This test is more accurate than the split-half test, but can only be completed on questions with two answers eg, yes or no, 0 or 1.
In this test, the average of all correlations in every combination of split-halves is determined. Instruments with questions that have more than two responses can be used in this test. An acceptable reliability score is one that is 0. Stability is tested using test—retest and parallel or alternate-form reliability testing. Test—retest reliability is assessed when an instrument is given to the same participants more than once under similar circumstances. A statistical comparison is made between participant's test scores for each of the times they have completed it.
This provides an indication of the reliability of the instrument. Parallel-form reliability or alternate-form reliability is similar to test—retest reliability except that a different form of the original instrument is given to participants in subsequent tests.
The domain, or concepts being tested are the same in both versions of the instrument but the wording of items is different. Generally speaking, a correlation coefficient of less than 0. Equivalence is assessed through inter-rater reliability. This test includes a process for qualitatively determining the level of agreement between two or more observers.
A good example of the process used in assessing inter-rater reliability is the scores of judges for a skating competition. The level of consistency across all judges in the scores given to skating participants is the measure of inter-rater reliability.
An example in research is when researchers are asked to give a score for the relevancy of each item on an instrument. Consistency in their scores relates to the level of inter-rater reliability of the instrument.
Determining how rigorously the issues of reliability and validity have been addressed in a study is an essential component in the critique of research as well as influencing the decision about whether to implement of the study findings into nursing practice.
In quantitative studies, rigour is determined through an evaluation of the validity and reliability of the tools or instruments utilised in the study. A good quality research study will provide evidence of how all these factors have been addressed. This will help you to assess the validity and reliability of the research and help you decide whether or not you should apply the findings in your area of clinical practice.
This prerequisite is essential to a hypothesis establishing itself as an accepted scientific truth. For example, if you are performing a time critical experiment, you will be using some type of stopwatch. Generally, it is reasonable to assume that the instruments are reliable and will keep true and accurate time.
However, diligent scientists take measurements many times, to minimize the chances of malfunction and maintain validity and reliability. At the other extreme, any experiment that uses human judgment is always going to come under question.
Human judgment can vary wildly between observers , and the same individual may rate things differently depending upon time of day and current mood. This means that such experiments are more difficult to repeat and are inherently less reliable.
Reliability is a necessary ingredient for determining the overall validity of a scientific experiment and enhancing the strength of the results. Debate between social and pure scientists, concerning reliability, is robust and ongoing. Validity encompasses the entire experimental concept and establishes whether the results obtained meet all of the requirements of the scientific research method. For example, there must have been randomization of the sample groups and appropriate care and diligence shown in the allocation of controls.
Internal validity dictates how an experimental design is structured and encompasses all of the steps of the scientific research method. Even if your results are great, sloppy and inconsistent design will compromise your integrity in the eyes of the scientific community.
Internal validity and reliability are at the core of any experimental design. External validity is the process of examining the results and questioning whether there are any other possible causal relationships. Control groups and randomization will lessen external validity problems but no method can be completely successful.
To be reliable, an inventory measuring self-esteem should give the same result if given twice to the same person within a short period of time. IQ tests should not give different results over time as intelligence is assumed to be a stable characteristic. Validity refers to the credibility or believability of the research. Are the findings genuine? Is hand strength a valid measure of intelligence? Almost certainly the answer is "No, it is not. The answer depends on the amount of research support for such a relationship.
Internal validity - the instruments or procedures used in the research measured what they were supposed to measure.
As part of a stress experiment, people are shown photos of war atrocities. After the study, they are asked how the pictures made them feel, and they respond that the pictures were very upsetting. In this study, the photos have good internal validity as stress producers. External validity - the results can be generalized beyond the immediate study.
Validity and reliability in social science research items can first be given as a test and, subsequently, on the second occasion, the odd items as the alternative form.
The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and now it is reconsidered in the qualitative research paradigm. Since reliability and validity are rooted in positivist perspective then they should be redefined for their use in .
Reliability in research Reliability, like validity, is a way of assessing the quality of the measurement procedure used to collect data in a dissertation. In order for the results from a study to be considered valid, the measurement procedure must first be reliable. PDF | On Jan 1, , Roberta Heale and others published Validity and reliability in quantitative research For full functionality of ResearchGate it is necessary to .
4 Reliability & Validity-7 Internal Consistency: Homogeneity Is a measure of how well related, but different, items all measure the same thing. Is applied to groups of items thought to measure different aspects of the same concept. A single item taps only one aspect of a concept. If several different items are used to gain information. Internal validity dictates how an experimental design is structured and encompasses all of the steps of the scientific research method. Even if your results are great, sloppy and inconsistent design will compromise your integrity in the eyes of the scientific community. Internal validity and reliability are at the core of any experimental design.