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How to Write Research Papers

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❶References are important because they show that you studied and are familiar with the work of your peers in the field. That being said - since you're the only author other than your PI - everyone will know that everything in that paper is your work.

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So pretty important journals. Corvus now claims that my analysis is glaringly wrong and gives the explanation that other journals except Nature and Science do not have the need to pick between papers, if I have understood him right. Corvus, it is your claim that other high-reputable journals both by h-index and impact factor do not have the problem with picking a paper and therefore high rejection rates? Do you stand by your claim? If my information is outdated or simply wrong, then I will retract it, but I will research it.

Glaringly wrong, yes or no? As others have said: Remember that Einstein didn't have a PhD when he published his paper on the photo-electric effect, yet it would win him a Nobel Prize. A requirement for getting a PhD degree is often to publish a paper where you are the first author.

So then you don't have a PhD yet either. What's more important is references. Even if you have a PhD, but your list of references only is two items, chances are it will be rejected, unless of course you made a Really Great Discovery. References are important because they show that you studied and are familiar with the work of your peers in the field.

I still was a MA's student when my paper draft was first accepted. I even attended conferences. Do not let anyone tell you otherwise.

If a peer-reviewed journal published a paper on the basis of the letters after the authors' names, then the journal would undermine its own credibility. When you drive across a bridge, or undergo open heart surgery, the engineers' or surgeon's professional registration is your assurance that they know what they're doing; but scholarly publications are supposed to be written in a way that makes them self-evidently good — they shouldn't need propping up with letters after the authors' names.

Look at a few reputable journals and you'll see that they just print the authors' names no letters after! Of course publications want to be read. There is no doubt that anyone who can submit work that is clear, concise, innovative and readable will be considered. But no matter what an individual's personal experience has been, or even the official policy, it comes down to the work, how it is expressed, and the integrity and professionalism of the scientist author.

Somehow, nitpicking others' comments seems to be related more to the desire an individual may harbor to be published- even if it's in an online forum!

By clicking "Post Your Answer", you acknowledge that you have read our updated terms of service , privacy policy and cookie policy , and that your continued use of the website is subject to these policies. Questions Tags Users Badges Unanswered. Is it possible to submit a paper to a scholarly, peer-reviewed journal without PhD and get it accepted? Yes; I have done this four times. Many PhD students at least in Europe publish a few first-author papers before graduation.

Granted, there's almost always at least the student's professor on the paper as a co-author, often more collaborators. Does it count if one is on one's way to a PhD? A fellow graduate student and I co-published a number of papers, including some in the very highest tier journals, prior to being awarded our degrees.

I never felt that there was any bias against us for not having PhDs, and very little if any for being unknown in the field. What we did have was a university affiliation--perhaps the response would have been different if we had submitted as independent researchers from our home addresses--but if so, I think an unknown PhD recipient would fare no better. The gatekeepers to these journals are magical telepaths who automatically detonate you if you even think about submitting a paper without a Ph.

Anonymous reviewers can also divine your academic status even without knowing your name. Anonymous Mathematician k 15 Disregarding knowledge, the main obstacles for people who do not work at a university are a lack of facilities i.

It's a lot easier to succeed without these things in some fields than in others! This is only true for paper journals: May 10 '15 at The arxiv is not any kind of journal.

Do you know of any electronic journals which require academic qualifications in order for the submission to be considered? Clark May 10 '15 at Clark While arxiv is technically only a preprint server, it had the function to publish own papers and was essential if you wanted to publish something in electronic format There were electronic journals, but they were quite uninfluential.

Was not aware of the change, my error, mea culpa. May 11 '15 at 0: I've heard a different opinion. Theoretically you can publish, but in fact, without leading professor usually last author , without lab, or university, just by your own, you most probably will get rejected even without reading the contents of the paper. Count Iblis 2, 4 8. Even when this is not a formal requirement, from my perspective, a PhD student has to publish to get any decent funding like a travel award or a scholarship , just like any other academic scientist.

As an extreme example, here are some groundbreaking pre- or no-PhD discoveries: It's clear that such contributions warrant a publication irrespective of the author's status. GDumphart 1 6. Hey, thanks for interesting links! They are certainly encouraging.

I think the recent examples are particularly important, as they show that this is still true, despite the degree to which the world has changed in the last hundred years and the increasing professionalization of science.

I don't at all disagree with the thesis that you can have a publication in a top journal without a terminal or even any academic degree. I think though that examples are a little less convincing when the paper is coauthored with someone else that does have these credentials, as is the case in your last example and in the example of the previous comment. Clark May 11 '15 at I am a bit more skeptical than the majority of the answers.

So, principially yes, but there are barriers. Do not underestimate the problem. I'm not the original down-voter, but I can tell you one thing that is glaringly wrong with your analysis: Anywhere else, the handling editors make a decision to accept or reject independently of any other manuscripts they may be handling.

At least in my field, there is a strong trend toward completely blinded submission review neither reviewers nor editors get to see authors' identities until after deciding what to accept precisely to prevent author reputation from being a factor in acceptance decisions. In the meantime, some things to watch out for are as follows. Sentences should logically lead on from one to the next as smoothly as walking.

English has a preference for short sentences with a great deal of structure connecting across sentences. Words or ideas used a few sentences back will still be in the reader's mind, so there should not be any jarring change of topic. If you want to change the topic, no problem, but warn the reader by key phrases like 'on the other hand', 'meanwhile', 'in contrast to this', 'moreover' etc. A shift of general topic is signalled by a new paragraph.

Again, previous paragraphs are still active in the readers mind so any very big shift should be excused by a suitable explanation like 'Now we come to The signals could refer back to the introduction and outline, or might indicate a surprise for the reader. A conceptual sandwich is where you begin with one idea, move on to another, and then move back to the first one.

This can happen at all scales: It indicates poor organisation and should be avoided. Can you move the middle of the sandwich to the top or the bottom, thereby pooling together the two related topic? The more general topic should usually come first, with the more specific sub-topic following, unless you deliberately want to be pedagogical. The idea of avoiding a sandwich is that when you bring up a topic, say all that you will want to say about it in the near future, before moving on to further questions arising from it.

Chopping and changing uses up the reader's energy. A similar phenomenon can occur with a sentence too. A common problem is that the second half of the sentence came as an afterthought but more properly belongs as the first half of the sentence.

So always ask yourself if you should reverse the order of a sentence. Every assertion should have a clear validation status. By this I mean that it should be clear to the reader from context or from signals in the syntax exactly how the reader is supposed to know that the assertion is correct. Some languages have long sentences with lots of commas, but English does not have the grammar to support this.

Rather, sentences should be short and sharp. Russians say that English people sound like barking dogs. A common fear is to avoid losing the context by finishing the sentence, leading the author to put a comma and run on with another one. There is no need to be afraid of that because words will still remain active for a short while after the period. A good rule is to look for sentences longer than one or two lines and see if ', which' or ', where' etc can be replaced by fresh sentences.

Beware of pronouns like 'this' and 'it'. Is it absolutely clear and unambiguous what they refer back to? You may know what you had in mind but will the reader?

And don't use 'this' for 'the present'. Beware of 'never' and 'only'. These are strong assertions and unless you've really proven them it's best to water them down with 'appears to be' or 'it seems'.

However, don't use 'probably'. Commas are especially important but hard to give rules for. Don't go by where you pause when speaking; at best commas can be used as a kind of 'conceptually pause' or to make an aside with the help of a later comma brackets are usually better, however.

Very often a fresh sentence would be better. And when writing your thesis or for camera-ready work you should be more polished about punctuation rules: Try not to begin or end a sentence with a math symbol. More precisely, try to avoid math symbols clashing with textual punctuation. The exception to this is displayed equations, where the general rule is to put commas and if necessary a final period, so that one can read through the displayed equation like text.

On the other hand, don't over do it by putting connectives like 'and' or other substantial text into the displayed equation. The displayed equation is half-way to a table so should be laid out for visual clarity and without unnecessary text.

Check that all symbols and terminology are defined to some extent before they are used. This can be done in a formal definition or more informally. One technique in mathematical work is to put the term for an important concept in a different font when its usage is being specified for the first time. This is especially important in the Preliminaries section, but applies elsewhere also.

On a smaller scale, make sure that any symbols are quietly specified so that it is clear what they denote. Don't assume that your notation is obvious or standard, since others could have grown up with different conventions.

A good intro and well-written paper does not need conclusions. But this is the place for epilogical comments that can be understood only now after your new results.

They are like corollaries or informal results or consequences that you haven't worked out yet in detail. You can tell your ideas about these if you want in the form of expected directions for further work.

Do a computer search Bids, hepth, q-alg to make sure you have picked up all relevant recent work. Also, did you fairly reference the originators of all the works and ideas that you used? Don't go by where you first read something which might have been only pedagogical but by where it was really discovered.

That takes a bit of detective work but we all have to be our own policepersons. Good Luck and don't forget to spellcheck and check punctuation if you need it! If you can, let it sit on the shelf for a week or a month before giving it a final fresh reading.

There may well be typos that you did not spot first time round. Click here to search our database of PhDs. Copyright All rights reserved. We use cookies to give you the best online experience. By continuing, we'll assume that you're happy to receive all cookies on this website. To read our privacy policy click here. PhDs Degrees by Country. Postgraduate scholarships available for Have you thought about studying for your PhD abroad? The best books to guide you through your PhD.

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In writing a PhD level paper, you will need all the help you can get, if you want it to be successful. We have prepared for you some PhD dissertation writing help advice that will assist you with researching, organizing and writing your project. Sections of a PhD level research paper explained. First things first, you have to understand the structure of a .

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1Always put your contact info on the front page so that people can find your paper and send you comments! It’s the 21st century — get a web page. If your paper is ready for a faculty member to read it, it should be on your webpage. Put the date on the paper so people know if they are reading a new version. What do you have to write to get your doctorate - Secure Student Writing and Editing Website - Order Non-Plagiarized Writing Assignments Online Cheap Essay Writing Assistance - We Help Students To Get Custom Written Essay Papers in High Quality Professional Paper Writing and Editing Assistance - Get Help With Top-Quality Papers .

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How to Write Research Papers. by Professor Shahn Majid. The style and format of research papers varies from subject to subject (and indeed journal to journal). This guide is aimed at students in the mathematical sciences. These are some hints for starting PhD students on how to write papers. It is assumed of course that you have some results. How many papers did you author during your PhD work? How many first-author publications? (coachoutleta.cfhool) We just conducted an extremely complex experiment, so there will likely be progress soon towards more writing, but I just feel that I am not up to par with my peers in that regard. not because you have 15 papers. Ok, enough.