This theory states that evolution takes place in a cycle consisting of a long period of little evolution followed by a relatively short period of much change and evolution, probably caused by large changes in an environment, such as the onset of an ice age or the death of a very large amount of organisms and species, thus clearing much evolutionary space.
By this theory, since the intermediate periods would be so relatively short, the chances of an adequate fossil being preserved are very small, which explains why we don? The problems with this theory abound. What reason is there for such evolution to occur at this time more than at any other? Richard Dawkins suggests that perhaps there is a gene that causes an increase in mutation rates, but since as a whole this sort of mechanism would tend to be detrimental rather than helpful to most organisms, and it as yet has not been discovered in any case, this would certainly be a very weak foundation upon which to rest a theory.
The other large problem modern science has with evolution is that the simple process of elongating an already existing organ structure would require more than just a simple change in one gene. Take, for example, the lengthening of a finger: Further, such a change would alter the delicate balance of the structure in question.
A new balance would have to be achieved. All of these problems would largely been taken care of on a microscopic scale, by a multiplicity of proteins and enzymes.
True, proteins and enzymes are what is coded by the genes in DNA, but to create all these proteins, more than one or two genes would need to be changed. At the very least, several dozen simultaneous cooperating mutations would have to take place, and no one needs to be told how unlikely that is.
To elaborate on mutations for a minute, no one argues with the fact that they are almost always detrimental to the organism in question. Even when, by some twist of fate, the mutation happens to be helpful, it is more often because of the malfunction of a particular enzyme that interferes with a process that in the current environment happens to no longer be the preferable way of doing things.
More basic than all of these problems, however, is the simple logical problem. For an organism to benefit from natural selection, it has to develop features that will help it survive and reproduce before the environmental condition that makes it so comes into existence. A gene would have to predict what sort of changes would be beneficial ahead of time. Evolutionists maintain that this is not in the slightest bit what actually occurs. Mutations occur constantly, most detrimental, as we said, and the rare few that are beneficial just waiting around until they are called for.
This argument is very weak for the simple reason that it is very easy to picture life dying out hundreds of times, simply because it never developed the right genes in advance. The Theory of Evolution is long-standing and widely supported. Questions are just being asked, and there is certainly a good probability that many of them will be answered. This sort of questioning is precisely the sort of approach the that leads to further understanding and discovery in all the fields of science.
I feel that there are clearly some fundamental problems in the current theory of Evolution. There is not question that it at least works on a relatively small scale, within a species.
This has been proven without a doubt. It is only with regard to the great diversity of life all around us, the efficiency and intelligence of their mechanisms, and of course their origination? In that light, science is doing all it can to find answers. For now, however, the Theory of Evolution is in serious question, and our origins remain unknown. You can order a custom essay on Darwin's Theory of Evolution now! Posted by Webmaster at 2: Darwin essay example , free essay on evolution theory , sample essay on Darwin , The Theory of Evolution , The Theory of Evolution essay.
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Why does nature put so high a premium on generation? And why does generation have the twofold character of perpetuation and variation? It seems that apart from the occasional reference to "adaptation", Darwin ,at that time, almost deliberately tried to avoid the contemporary theories of the mechanics of evolution.
Notwithstanding, Darwin, sooner or later, had to confront the question of "how" evolution occurred. Amusingly, he happened to stumble upon the answer quite accidentally.
In his spare time Darwin enjoyed reading various books rather aimlessly, for amusement. One of these books, which he read in October , happened to be Malthus' Essay on the Principle of Population. As Darwin himself later related, "Malthus' description of the struggle for existence in human society immediately suggested to him that under the competitive conditions of animal and plant life, favorable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavorable ones destroyed, the result being the formation of new species".
By this chance encounter than, Darwin's theory was provided with a rationale, and the "how" of evolution came to supplement the "why". It is important to note, that even though the crux of Darwin's theory was inspired by Malthus, Darwin diverged from Malthus in a critical way. Darwin's debt to Malthus lies in the borrowing of the concept of the "struggle for existence". However, in general, what Malthus was concerned about was not how the struggle for existence affected the quality of the population i.
Indeed, Malthus' essay was written as a rebuttal to Godwin and Condorcet, both of whom had argued that humans, under conditions of equality, were capable of infinite progress and perfection. In the essay Malthus advanced the "principle of population" to refute that idea. Thus, Malthus' principle argued that "human society could never progress toward perfectibility because the population inevitably tends to increase beyond the means of subsistence and is kept within the bounds of its resources only by misery, vice, and moral restraint".
Malthus' principle of population was based on the supposed differences in reproduction rates between humans who because of their status as "top dog" in the animal kingdom reproduced "geometrically" and animals and plants who could only increase "arithmetically", because they served mankind as a means of sustenance.
Darwin by contrast, shifted the center of attention from humans to the animal and plant kingdoms, because he was impressed by their enormous natural fertility, which was kept in check only by their own limited means of sustenance. By shifting his perspective from mankind to animals and plants Darwin revealed the basic fallacy of Malthus' argument.
For if humans increased geometrically, animals and plants must also increase at the same rate, and perhaps even more, because overall their natural rate of reproduction is higher than that of mankind. Therefore, the struggle for existence, which to Malthus meant that hardship and misery were the defining features of human life, to Darwin meant that every species was in constant change, because nature favored the fittest through the process of natural selection. Three and a half years passed after reading Malthus in October , before Darwin finally sat down to write his ideas formally in May There are two main reasons for this lengthy delay.
First, throughout his life Darwin suffered from ill-health , which began to get acute in , and was particularly debilitating between and Second, during this time Darwin had more pressing matters which occupied his mind. In particular he was working on the book Coral Reefs, papers for the Geological Society, and work connected with the Zoology of the voyage of the Beagle.
After completing the initial first sketch of 35 pages, he set out to write a larger and more thorough sketch in by the time he was finished the sketch numbered pages. However, Darwin still proceeded to write his ideas on evolution at a "leisurely" pace, and not until , when urged by his colleague Lyell, did he start working on his magnum opus, The Origin.
By June Darwin had completed about half of the book on a scale three to four times as large as when it was later published , when one day a nasty surprise awaited him.
On June 18, Darwin received a manuscript from the English naturalist, Wallace. In the manuscript Wallace described the theory of natural selection, and asked Darwin to comment on his ideas.
Darwin thought that the only honorable thing to do was to recommend the paper for publication. Fortunately, for Darwin, Lyell suggested and Wallace and Darwin accepted that both Wallace's paper and extracts from Darwin's sketch of be published simultaneously, thus establishing the rights of both to priority. Interestingly, later on at the fiftieth anniversary meeting of their joint publication, Wallace made it clear that although the idea of natural selection came to both of them independently, Darwin's contributions outweighed his by twenty to one because Darwin had the credit of twenty years of priority and work.
Finally, by Darwin finished writing the book, and on November 24 the Origin was first published. The sales of the book exceeded everyone's expectations by 16, copies were sold in England alone , and the book's impact was felt almost immediately.
In the mid nineteenth century English society where science was a popular topic of conversation, the book competed with such dinner party topics as the Italian revolution. Even those who most bitterly despised its content were quick to concede its importance. Within the scientific community the book was creating a new paradigm that threatened to disrupt the existing status-quo. The mood of the time is illustrated by August Weismann who states: The young saw in Darwin an opportunity for a new and freer philosophical universe.
For instance, young biologists such as Karl Pearson, referring to the beginning of time, were rejoiced when "that wretched date BC , was replaced by a long vista of millions of years of development". However, the older more professional scientists, objected to Darwin's ideas on religious grounds.
Before Darwin published the Origin, science and religion existed in harmony. There was an understanding on the part of religion that evolution was discredited by science. Now that men of science were finally favorites of the church just two centuries ago scientists such as Galileo were unfavorably perceived by the church , it seemed foolish to give up this hard won peace for just another evolutionary hypothesis.
Although Darwin discussed sexual selection in the Origin, the majority of the book and hence the primary importance was devoted to natural selection. However, sexual selection played a far more important role in Darwin's The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex henceforth referred to as the Descent , which was published on February 24, In the Descent, sexual selection assumed an equal if not greater than role for the origin of species.
For Darwin sexual selection was not simply a subcategory of natural selection, but rather an alternative or complementary mechanism of evolution. In addition, sexual selection, to a larger extent than natural selection, shifts the focus of attention to one of the most significant and least appreciated aspects of Darwin's theory: It is therefore inaccurate, from this point on, to refer to Darwin's theory as simply "evolution by natural selection" Darwin himself called the theory "the principle of evolution".
The primary reason why Darwin "abandoned" natural selection in favor of sexual selection was the fact that natural selection could not properly explain either the evolution of man from the animals or the differences between the sexes and races.
The problem is that natural selection assumes that only beneficial changes get preserved in future generations, whereas in reality "the races of man differ from each other and from their nearest allies amongst the animals , in certain characters which are of no service to them in their ordinary habits of life".
By contrast, sexual selection does not have to be useful for the purpose of adaptation to the environment, and it may actually work against natural selection. Therefore, Darwin now argued that any features which are not adaptive to the individual, and thus could not have been acquired through the process of natural selection, must have been acquired through sexual selection.
When the Descent was published in , it became an immediate best-seller. The initial copies were sold almost instantaneously, and an additional copies were sold by the end of the year. The book was exceedingly controversial at the time, dealing with perhaps the most provocative evolutionary topic of all, the origin of man.
In the book Darwin suggested that man differed from animals in degree and not kind, and than proceeded to conclude that man descended from a "hairy, tailed quadruped, probably arboreal in its habits". Surprisingly, the reaction to the book was not as violent as one might have expected it to be, from Darwin's previous experience with the Origin.
For instance, Hooker, who at that time found evolution discussed everywhere relates the following: However, the picture painted by Hooker is rather deceptive, as the portrayed amiability was often a matter of tone rather than of substance. People may not have been outraged, but neither were they placated. Most of the critics choose to ridicule Darwin's ideas rather than attack them head on. For example, a typical response, published in the Athenaeum, went along the lines of: Nevertheless, criticism was mostly tempered with praise.
A good example of this is provided in the Edinburgh Review which carefully balanced displeasure with tribute: Darwin appears to us to be not more remarkable for the acuteness and ingenuity of his powers of observation of natural phenomena, than he is for the want of logical power and sound reasoning on philosophical questions". Therefore, while despised by some and adored by others, Darwin's ideas were quickly permeating into the fabric of society.
Darwin left us a legacy which is greater than just the sum of his scientific work. Not only did his theory of evolution illuminate our past, but also the present and the future were now possible to interpret in "Darwinian terms". Probably more so than any other scientific theory, Darwin's theory of evolution, lends itself to various social interpretations known as "social Darwinism".
From the radical left to the radical right, Darwin's theory has been adopted by such people as Marx and Hitler, each of whom saw in it evidence for their own ideology. Alongside the likes of Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton, Darwin has rightly earned his place in history as one of the giants of the scientific revolution. Bibliography Bowler, Peter J. Charles Darwin the Man and His Influence. London, Himmelfarb, Gertrude.
Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution. Darwin and Mendel-the Materialist Revolution. The Heritage of Copernicus. Up Close and Virtual.
Instructions for writing a good argumentative essay. Top Political Philosophy Quotes. Instructions to Write an Essay Introduction in three basic Steps. Microsoft support number. General Classification of Main of Academic Essays? All's Well That Ends Well. A Midsummer Night's Dream. As You Like It. Henry VI Part 1. Henry IV Part 1. Henry IV Part 2. The Merchant of Venice. Merry Wives of Windsor. Much Ado About Nothing. Pericles, Prince of Tyre. The Taming Of The Shrew.
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- Charles Darwin’s theory and evolution Introduction: Charles Darwin was an English scientist who developed the theory of evolution which had been around for long period of time which gave him fame during his life and after his death.
We Can Write a Custom Essay on Darwin's Theory of Evolution for You! Darwin's theory was widely hailed at the time of its publication as being an excellent explanation for the diversity of living things on our planet, and as time .
Charles Darwin proposed the theory of evolution to explain the origin, diversity and complexity of life. I will will disprove evolution by showing that natural selection only explains small evolutionary changes, collectively known as microevolution. Natural selection cannot drive large evolutionary changes, macroevolution. This free Science essay on Essay: Evolution and Charles Darwin is perfect for Science students to use as an example. What is the modern status of Darwin’s theory of evolution? A. All of the basic concepts have remained sound, and have survived extensive challenge and testing. There was a great deal of evidence in support of Darwin.
Essay on Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection - When the name Charles Darwin is uttered, an immediate association brings about the concept of Evolution. Although he was not the first to "discover" this phenomenon, he . Charles Darwin in his theory of evolution suggests that man evolved from ape-like creatures. In this theory, there is an indication that the early man was distinct from apes.