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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing

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❶For Notes and Bibliography, you will use a superscript at the instance of each quote in the text with a corresponding footnote at the end of the page. Each reference should use the elements and punctuation given in the following examples for the different types of published work you may have cited.

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Before you write
How to Cite
Why reference?

Effective note making , Avoiding plagiarism. When you are writing an essay, report, dissertation or any other form of academic writing, your own thoughts and ideas inevitably build on those of other writers, researchers or teachers. It is essential that you acknowledge your debt to the sources of data, research and ideas on which you have drawn by including references to, and full details of, these sources in your work. Referencing your work allows the reader:.

Whenever you read or research material for your writing, make sure that you include in your notes, or on any photocopied material, the full publication details of each relevant text that you read.

These details should include:. For particularly important points, or for parts of texts that you might wish to quote word for word, also include in your notes the specific page reference. The publisher's name is normally on a book's main title page, and often on the book's spine too. Your source should be acknowledged every time the point that you make, or the data or other information that you use, is substantially that of another writer and not your own.

As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph. Look at the ways in which your sources use references in their own work, and for further guidance consult the companion guide Avoiding Plagiarism. There are many different referencing conventions in common use.

Each department will have its own preferred format, and every journal or book editor has a set of 'house rules'. This guide aims to explain the general principles by giving details of the two most commonly used formats, the 'author, date' system and footnotes or endnotes. Once you have understood the principles common to all referencing systems you should be able to apply the specific rules set by your own department. In the 'author, date' system often referred to as the 'Harvard' system very brief details of the source from which a discussion point or piece of factual information is drawn are included in the text.

Full details of the source are then given in a reference list or bibliography at the end of the text. As the name suggests, the citation in the text normally includes the name s surname only of the author s and the date of the publication. This information is usually included in brackets at the most appropriate point in the text. The seminars that are often a part of humanities courses can provide opportunities for students to develop the communication and interpersonal skills that are valued by employers Lyon, The text reference above indicates to the reader that the point being made draws on a work by Lyon, published in An alternative format is shown in the example below.

Knapper and Cropley Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made. You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work.

When a publication has several authors , it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al. Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work.

Learn when in-text citations are necessary. Every single source that contains information you used must be included in your Works Cited and cited in-text. The most obvious time to use an in-text citation is when you quote from a source directly or refer to it by title or author. Failing to attribute information that is the product of someone else's work is plagiarism. The repercussions can be severe.

For example, it is common knowledge that World War II broke out in Nobody owns that information. But specific strategies, quotes from important figures in the war, and statistics about how many people were involved in the war are all examples of specific, proprietary information.

The author of the source you used to research that information had to do the work of finding that information out. You must attribute it to them. Choose the appropriate in-text citation method. But if you include that necessary information in the language of the sentence itself, you should not include the parenthetical citation.

A recent study determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan A recent study determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals.

Adjust in-text citations if you have multiple sources from an author. When they look up the source on your Works Cited sheet, they will find two different articles by James Smith. To avoid this confusion, you must include a shortened version of the essay's title, so the readers know which essay to look for.

It could be argued that Sethe is haunted by "the physical persistence of memory" Smith, "Beloved" Include the first initial if you have authors with the same last name. An in-text citation of Smith doesn't tell the reader which author provided the information. In that case, include the first initial of the author's last name in the in-text citation: Format the citation in the Works Cited. When the reader sees a quote or idea that they would like to know more about, they will look up the source author by the last name you listed in the in-text citation.

They will also know which page of the source they should look at to find the information they want. Depending on where you found the essay, your citation will follow a different format. Regardless of what format you follow, one thing remains constant across all citations.

You always indent all lines that come after the first line of a Works Cited citation. This lets the reader know where one citation ends and the next one begins. MLA also uses title case ever time a title is given. This means that first word and all major words are capitalized: The Sound and the Fury. This is distinguished from sentence case, in which only the first word is capitalized: The sound and the fury.

Follow the format for an essay found in an anthology. In this case, you must include the following information in this exact order: Publisher, Year of Publication. Include different information for essays published in journals. If you found the article in an academic journal, you have a different set of information to include.

Some of the information — like author name, essay title, and page range — stay the same. But you should follow this format exactly: Add electronic information for sources found in online databases. These databases store electronic versions of print journals as PDFs.

The article you're citing may have originally appeared in a print journal, but you accessed it online. You need to let the reader know how they, too, can access it online: The date of access is the date on which you found the essay. In MLA, all dates follow this format: Determine if APA is the right style for your document. APA is the formatting style for the American Psychological Association, but it's used in the social sciences, business, and nursing as well.

Learn what information to include in-text. Independent, 4 June, p. Map of the countries lying between Spain and India, 1: Title of conference proceedings including date and place of conference. Publisher, Page numbers of contribution. Publisher, Report Number where relevant. Name of institution to which submitted. The linguistic significance of current British slang.

Series designation which may include full date. Optical perforating apparatus and system. European patent application A1. For films the preferred date is the year of release in the country of production. Birds in the Garden, The number and title of the episode should normally be given, as well as the series title, the transmitting organisation and channel, the full date and time of transmission.

News at Ten, The British Standard BS The recommendations in this document follow best practice in referencing electronic resources and where possible follow the guidance of the British Standard. Place of publication, Publisher if ascertainable.

Guide to citing Internet sources [online]. Journal Title [online], volume issue , location within host. Psycoloquy [online], 6 Discussion List [online] Available from: DK [Accessed 29 Apr ]. It should be noted that items may only be kept on discussion group servers for a short time and hence may not be suitable for referencing. A local copy could be kept by the author who is giving the citation, with a note to this effect.

Sender's e-mail address , Day Month Year. ProCite and nternet Refere. A brief history of time: Citation of unpublished documents. Remember that you must acknowledge your source very time you refer to someone else's work. Failure to do so amounts to plagiarism, which is against University rules and is a serious offence.

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As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph.

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Referencing the Essay Referencing is a system that allows you to acknowledge the contributions and work of others in your writing by citing your sources. A feature of academic writing is that it contains references to the .

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Likewise, within academic essays, the use of APA style referencing means that the evidence presented within essays reflects scientific research reporting. To close, this essay can be used as an example for students to learn how sources should be cited and referenced in the APA style. References: Adair, J. G., & Vohra, N. (). Aug 29,  · How to Cite an Essay. Four Methods: Citing an Essay in MLA Citing an Essay in APA Citing an Essay in Chicago Style’s Note-Bibliography System Citing an Essay in Chicago Style’s Author-Date System Community Q&A. Whether you're a high school student or a professional writer, you may need to cite your sources using a Views: K.

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The following winning essay was submitted in by a UK higher education student for an essay writing competition sponsored by the LearnHigher Centre of Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) network. The set title was ‘What is the point of referencing?’, and there was a maximum word limit. Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited, a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number