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Behaviorism was the first attempt to study human behavior using the scientific method. A multitude of research trends and influences in the biological and social sciences led to the emergence of behaviorism as a separate school of thought around the end of the nineteenth century.

The most important theorists that contributed to the evolution of behaviorism as a separate school of thought presented their work as fundamentally different from the other life sciences like biology, but also different from psychoanalysis. Those early behaviorists, who laid the groundwork for future researchers, included John Watson,…… [Read More].

Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 39 4 , Darwinian theory, functionalism, and the first American psychological revolution.

American Psychologist, 64 2 , The Psychological Record, 61 3 , Journals of a River Knight Apprentice.

Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20 2 , The implications of the investigation are to show how self-talk may influence goal-directed behaviors. Moreover, the research falls within the provinces of cognitive and linguistic sciences, particularly with regard to semantic framing. The authors also point out that the results of this and similar studies on the role of self-talk in mitigating behavior might be relevant to marketers. Essentially, the Whorf hypothesis suggests that language actually frames reality, potentially more than the other way around.

A review…… [Read More]. Research methods in psychology 2nd ed. Bridgepoint Education Patrick, V. When empowered refusal motivates goal-directed behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 39 2 , Attachment Theory and Child Psychology. Children can develop secure, insecure, or disorganized styles of attachment, based largely on parental responses to their emotional needs in times of stress or a perceived threat.

Since attachment theory was first proposed in the late s, it has evolved to include a wide range of research on different causes, effects, and interventions. Recent research on attachment theory has focused on how different attachment styles impact prosocial behaviors such as helping, sharing, or caring. Cognitive behavior therapy for children and adolescents. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 19 4: The multifaceted nature of prosocial behavior in children. Pairing attachment theory and social learning theory in video-feedback intervention to promote positive parenting.

Current Opinion in Psychology 15 Attachment to attachment theory. Framing attachment theory within the dramatic worldview. Drama Therapy Review 2 2: Client Psychology Analysis Case Study. When he first arrives to therapy, the client presents himself cleanly in uniform, but he refuses to talk. The client has been mandated to the therapist after getting into a series of violent altercations with fellow officers.

After several more sessions, the client starts to engage. Engagement The first several sessions did not yield any information, as the client was resistant to therapy and was not in therapy of his own volition. However, the client eventually reveals the details of his childhood. His story unfolds from the beginning, even from the time before the client was born when his father was killed.

Clinical and counseling psychologists have different ethical guidelines for their profession. For example, there are different ethical principles related to clients being treated by psychologists in counseling sessions versus the standards for conducting psychological research with human participants. However, due to the unique circumstances surrounding the relationship between counselor and client, the APA offers much more extensive guidelines for sexual misconduct and other abuses of power in the client-counselor relationship.

The ethical guidelines for research cover some issues that might not be relevant to…… [Read More]. Qualitative Research Methods in Psychology e-book. Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology. This is an important concept in the field of psychology alongside understanding how the brain develops and changes, and factors contributing to the changes. Given the role of cognitive neuroscience in understanding brain development and change, current research in this field of study can be applied to understand various problems or issues in psychology.

Such research can be applied…… [Read More]. Research practices depend on clearly defined guidelines. Those guidelines include general suggestions for how to conduct research effectively, how to apply research to clinical practice, and also how to maximize research reliability and validity.

However, it is also important to pay attention to specific statistical analyses due to the potential for misinterpreting data. Cortina points out the significance of coefficient alpha, noting that proper interpretations of alpha enhance research validity and reliability.

Alpha can often be misunderstood, particularly in the realm of scientist-practitioner and other types of applied research. It is not just misinterpretation of the alpha coefficient that can stymie research validity in the social sciences. Another core area of concern in applied…… [Read More]. Some criteria for evaluation. Academy of Management Review, 14 4 , National conference on scientist—practitioner education and training for the professional practice of psychology. American Psychologist, 47 1 , 71— What is coefficient alpha?

An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78 1 , General and specific measures in organizational behavior research: Considerations, examples, and recommendations for researchers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33 2 , — Measurement error in psychological research: Lessons from 26 research scenarios. Psychological Methods, 1 2 , — Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. The Psychology of Motivation Deci, E.

This article examines the appositeness of Self Determination Theory STD in optimizing motivation and psychological health for people. The predominant notion explored within this work is that of STD, which is significant for propounding two alternative theories of motivation.

There are positive connotations associated with this type of motivation. This theory is examined within the context of more traditional theories, one of…… [Read More]. Past, present, and future. Theories, constructs, and critical issues pp. A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure.

Psychological Review, 2 , Cognitive psychology as a radical behaviorist views it. The Psychological Record, 63 3 , Consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life. Journal of Research in Personality, 43 3 , John Watson Founder of Behaviorism. What are John Watson's primary critiques of psychology i. How does he propose to solve these issues?

Do you believe that introspection is important in changing behavior? Second, Watson noted that unlike the sciences, it is impossible to improve upon the methods used in an experiment in any meaningful way. Psychology depends too much on introspection, as Watson calls it.

Consciousness is simply too nebulous to study using the scientific method. Watson does not claim consciousness is not a worthwhile subject, but that it is simply not a scientific subject. To resolve the tension between psychology and the social sciences, and to infuse psychology…… [Read More]. Biological Psychological and Social dimensions of Anna.

Anna is a year-old Latina divorcee with two children, 23 and 26 years of age, residing in another state. Biological changes typical to the midlife phase, in which Anna currently is, include increased joint aches, weight gain and vision impairment Lachman, However Anna reports hardly any changes in these areas. Elevated blood pressure rates, stroke and smoking aggravate vision and hearing impairment; the above factors are absent in Anna and her healthy lifestyle makes her unlikely to experience them in the near future.

Anna's mom and dad,…… [Read More]. A social map of midlife: Family and work over the life course. Annual Review of Psychology, 55 1 , Introduction to Middle Adulthood. The First Florida Catholic University. Findings From a Longitudinal Study.. Historical Overview Millon was born in Manhattan in , and was an only child. References American Psychological Association Evolutionary theory and psychology. Evolution of the Millon clinical multiaxial inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment 97 6: Big Five Trait Theory.

The Big Five Trait Theory is used to describe the five core traits of personality: These traits are often used to help predict relationships between different personality types, as well as predictors of success in different aspects of life Psychology Today, Ackerman argues that the Big 5 traits have been verified across different cultures and countries, thus making them relatively neutral in terms of culture bias, and findings involving the traits to be more or less universal.

In practice, the Big 5 is used in settings such as human resources departments, rather than as a comprehensive explanation of personality. For example, conscientiousness was found to be reliably correlated with success in the workplace, moreso than other traits.

So an HR department might run an entire test but only be looking for a high conscientiousness score. The Big 5 trait theory…… [Read More]. The big five personality theory: The 5 factor explained Positive Psychology Program. Retrieved March 14, from https: Big 5 personality traits.

Mary taught at the University of Toronto, researched at Tavistock in England, worked at Johns Hopkins, and then settled at the University of Virginian beginning in , where she stayed till she ended her professorship in Ravo, While in graduate school, Mary was introduced to…… [Read More].

Reflections of eminent women in psychology. Mary Ainsworth, 85, theorist on mother-infant attachment. The basic structure of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic theory revolve around the idea that mental processes are automatically regulated by "the pleasure principle" and avoidance of pain. Why are these principles important to psychotherapy?

The pleasure principle became one of the central ideas and pivotal focal points of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic theory.

The pleasure principle is an embedded function of the subconscious mind, suggesting that it is immutable and inevitable. However, the pleasure principle is driven primarily by the needs and desires of the id. Those other two parts of the subconscious include the ego and superego. Together with the id, the ego and superego…… [Read More]. Reference University of British Columbia Makari Rieff and Schorske Write about Freud. Rieff, Schorske and Makari on Freud: Comparing and Contrasting Perspectives George Makari argued that Freud was a product of his environment.

The culture of Vienna at the time was ripe for something new—but Freudian psychology still needed some external help getting moving, and that came by way of Carl Jung and his experiments which brought a great deal of attention to Freud. Works Cited Makari, George. The Triumph of the Therapeutic. University of Chicago Press, Unconscious Mind and Self-Development. Annotated Bibliography Hebbrecht, M.

The dream as a picture of the psychoanalytic process. This, according to Hebbrecht could be accomplished via an exploration of the underlying structure of dreams so as to better perceive or infer their relationship with psychological and personal connections that are implanted deep in the dream world? Introduction A mother of 2, Ms. Z is an African American who has in the past attempted to commit suicide, after which she was admitted in a psychiatric hospital.

She is 35 years old. Her depressed mood, which has presented since she was 18 years old, continues even after she was prescribed antidepressant medication. Z has since returned to work, after receiving ECT. It is important to note that Ms. Z intends to return to school so as to complete her four year degree. Given her mental health history, Ms. Test and Assessment Development Analysis: The test is presented in various formats, and has several core subsets.

In general, the test takes approximately 60 to 90 minutes to complete. It is the said…… [Read More]. Handbook of Psychological Assessment 5th ed. John Wiley and Sons. Multicultural Competence and Professional Counselling. Thesis statement Multicultural competence is a necessary skill for a professional counsellor to succeed in working with mental health patients. Introduction Multicultural counselling refers to situations when a professional counsellor handles patients from different cultural groups and how such interaction holds the potential to interfere with what transpires in the course of their counsellor —patient relationship.

The difference in culture is extended to cover differences in religion, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic class, age, geographic location and family history. Effective multicultural counselling calls for the professional to, firstly, acknowledge the existence of such differences between them and the mental health disorder patient Faculty, The necessary steps to attain cultural competence How to understand and address problems in multicultural counselling setting Acknowledging cultural differences is an effective tool that counsellors can utilize to handle patients from other cultural up-bringing.

A counsellor must engage the mental health patient in such a way…… [Read More]. Five important aspects of multicultural counselling competencies. Counselling the culturally diverse: Evaluation of a Dissertation on Neurofeedback. Introduction The Wigton dissertation is about the efficacy of channel z-score neurofeedback 19ZNF , one of the newer types of neurofeedback methods. Wigton uses quantitative methods in a clinical setting to evaluate the effectiveness of 19ZNF.

According to the author, there has been a lack of empirical evidence supporting the use of this particular neurofeedback mechanism, in spite of the fact that neurofeedback itself is widely used in clinical practice. The specific outcome meausures used include attention, behavior, executive functioning, and electrocortical functioning. Background Neurofeedback, also known as elecroencephalographic EEG feedback, is a type of biofeedback using brainwaves.

As a biofeedback process, neurofeedback is ultimately based on the basic premises of behaviorism and operant conditioning. Neurofeedback can be used to provide immediate insight into how the brain reacts to specific behaviors or stimuli, thereby enabling individuals to change their behavior or responses to their environments.

With neurofeedback, the person…… [Read More]. Evaluating Channel Z-score Neurofeedback: Addressing Efficacy in a Clinical Setting. Health and Human Services. Jimmy and his family have multiple unmet needs, which can be meaningfully assessed and addressed through mental health services. Counseling services—especially family and group therapy—may be of particular use in this case. Therefore, case workers can effectively…… [Read More]. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Psychostimulants, Alpha-2 Agonists, and Atomoxetine.

Remember to answer the essay question. Underline the key words in the essay title. Don't make the mistake of simply writing everything you know of a particular topic, be selective. Each paragraph in your essay should contribute to answering the essay question. In simple terms this means outlining the strengths and limitations of a theory or research study. Is the sample biased or can we generalize the findings to other populations? What are the strengths and limitations of the method used and data obtained?

Be careful to ensure that any methodological criticisms are justified and not trite. Rather than hunting for weaknesses in every study; only highlight limitations which make you doubt the conclusions that the authors have drawn — e. Refer to debates such as nature or nurture, reductionism vs. For example, would they agree or disagree with a theory or the findings of the study? If research is biased towards men or women it does not provide a clear view of the behavior that has been studied.

A dominantly male perspective is known as an androcentric bias. The main criterion is that benefits must outweigh costs. But benefits are almost always to humans and costs to animals. Animal research also raises the issue of extrapolation. It is very important to elaborate on your evaluation. Don't just write a shopping list of brief one or two sentence evaluation points. Instead make sure you expand on your points, remember, quality of evaluation is most important than quantity.

Are they positive or negative? Point It is argued that psychoanalytic therapy is only of benefit to an articulate, intelligent, affluent minority. Explain Because psychoanalytic therapy involves talking and gaining insight, and is costly and time-consuming, it is argued that it is only of benefit to an articulate, intelligent, affluent minority.

Evidence suggests psychoanalytic therapy works best if the client is motivated and has a positive attitude. Furthermore, the levels of dependency of depressed clients mean that transference is more likely to develop. It is often best to write your introduction when you have finished the main body of the essay, so that you have a good understanding to the topic area. Let the reader know how you will focus your essay by identifying the main themes to be discussed.

Introductions are very important as first impressions count and they can create a halo effect in the mind of the lecturer grading your essay. The mass appeal that Psycho has maintained for over three decades can undoubtedly be attributed to its universality.

Psycho begins with a view of a city that is arbitrarily identified along with an exact date and time. The camera, seemingly at random, chooses first one of the many buildings and then one of the many windows to explore before the audience is introduced to Marion and Sam. The fact that the city and room were arbitrarily identified impresses upon the audience that their own lives could randomly be applied to the events that are about to follow.

As Marion begins her journey, the audience is drawn farther into the depths of what is disturbingly abnormal behaviour although it is compelled to identify and sympathize with her actions. In the car dealership, for example, Marion enters the secluded bathroom in order to have privacy while counting her money.

Hitchcock, however, with upper camera angles and the convenient placing of a mirror is able to convey the sense of an ever lingering conscious mind that makes privacy impossible. Hitchcock brings the audience into the bathroom with Marion and allows it to struggle with its own values and beliefs while Marion makes her own decision and continues with her journey.

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Psycho is a prime example of Hitchcock's unparalleled knowledge and know-how of psychological thrillers. In the following essay, I will attempt to evaluate and analyse the visual techniques and sounds effects he uses to distinguish tension and horror.

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Free psycho papers, essays, and research papers. The Lasting Impact of Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho - The s film Psycho directed by Alfred Hitchcock was groundbreaking and continues to influence film making to this day.

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Free Essay: Alfred Hitchcock's film Psycho Psycho, by Alfred Hitchcock, was shocking for its time. Made in the 's when film censorship was very tight to. Psycho study guide contains a biography of director Alfred Hitchcock, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

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Essay on Psycho Analysis Choose From a Film an Important Sequence in which Excitement is created as much by Technique as by Action/Dialogue The Shower Scene from Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho is a crucial scene in the plot of the film. Psycho Analysis Essay From a Film an Important Sequence in which Excitement is created as much by Technique as by Action/Dialogue The Shower Scene from Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho is a crucial scene in the plot of the film.