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Research Topics on Consumer Behavior

Consumer Behavior

❶Marketplace Lifestyles in an Age of Social Media. For example, it took decades for the telephone to achieve 50 percent penetration rates beginning in around , but it took less than five years for cellphones to achieve the same penetration rates.

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Below are two phrases used to wrap up a door-to-door donation request. Researchers tested the effect of the slight variation in wording. People who were asked the second variation were almost twice as likely to donate.

People are more likely to take action when minimal parameters are set. People may ask themselves if they have enough to donate and whether it will make a difference. Donors were twice as likely to give in response to the second question, but the amount they gave did not diminish. Implying that a small action is a good start will make people more amenable to making a move. You might think this refers to brand labels, but far from it.

I'm suggesting that you label your customers. The study examined the voting patterns of adults to see if labeling them had any affect on their turnout at the polls. After being casually questioned about their regular voting patterns, half of the participants were told that they were much more likely to vote since they had been deemed by the researchers to be more politically active. People like being part of groups that imply some superior quality or level of status that has their approval.

Fortunately, the secret boils down to utilizing well-written copy that appeals to their apprehensive nature. According to some remarkable neuroimaging studies, minimizing buying pain for tightwads and everybody else can be successfully accomplished by incorporating three simple strategies.

To make matters worse, it seems like a HUGE amount of money for conservative spenders. While this reframing method is effective for buyers of all types, it is most effective when targeting conservative spenders.

Neuroeconomics expert George Loewenstein notes that all consumers especially conservative spenders prefer to complete their purchase in one easy fell swoop rather than purchase multiple accessories separately. These individual purchases create individual pain points, whereas a bundled purchase creates only one pain point, even if the price is much greater. One of the goofiest conversion bumps ever is a study done by Carnegie Mellon University that reveals the impact of a single word on conversion rates.

Selling to tightwads is especially important because they make up a large base of your potential customers. The right choice of words can greatly reduce their buying pain.

Is it ever a good idea to admit to your faults? Consumer behavior research from social psychologist Fiona Lee states that admitting shortcomings is a great way to simultaneously highlight your strengths. Experimenters read one of two fictitious company reports. Both reports listed reasons why the company had performed poorly last year.

The first report placed emphasis on strategic decisions. The second placed emphasis on external events. The test subjects viewed the first company far more favorably than the second. Admitting to shortcomings in areas like strategic thinking showcased that the company was still in control, despite their faults. After examining hundreds of these types of statements, Lee found that the companies who admitted to their strategic faults also had higher stock prices the following year.

When blaming external forces even if they happened to be true , companies gave skeptics a reason to view them as not having the ability to fix the problem, in addition to the consideration that they might just be making excuses.

Admitting to honest errors in judgment helps your customers understand that you are still in control of the situation and not prone to making excuses. Creating a sense of urgency in your copy is one of the oldest tricks in the book The following research explains why urgency can completely backfire on you and ruin your meticulously written sales copy. The research is a classic study by Howard Leventhal where he analyzed the effects of handing out tetanus brochures to subjects.

Leventhal conducted the study by handing out two different pamphlets, both sparing no detail on the horrid effects that the tetanus disease can have on the body. The first pamphlet described only the effects of tetanus, while the second included information on where to get vaccinated. Invoking urgency only had a noticeable effect when follow-up instructions were given. Those who received the follow-up info were also more engaged with the pamphlet as a whole, being able to recall much more specific information from the packet than other participants.

Research has shown that instant gratification is such a powerful force that an ability to control against it is a great indicator of achieving success. Your copy should remind buyers of this advantage at every turn. When a potential customer is on the verge of completing a purchase from your business, they are heavily influenced by how quickly they can receive gratification for parting with their hard-earned money.

The provision of easy credit or payment terms may encourage purchase. Sales promotions such as the opportunity to receive a premium or enter a competition may provide an incentive to buy now rather than defer purchases for a later date. Advertising messages with a strong call-to-action are yet another device used to convert customers. Other types of calls-to-action might provide consumers with strong reasons for purchasing immediately such an offer that is only available for a limited time e.

The key to a powerful call-to-action is to provide consumers with compelling reasons to purchase promptly rather than defer purchase decisions. As consumers approach the actual purchase decision, they are more likely to rely on personal sources of information.

Methods used might include: Following purchase and after experiencing the product or service, the consumer enters the final stage, namely post-purchase evaluation. The consumer's purchase and post-purchase activities have the potential to provide important feedback to marketers. The post purchase stage is where the consumer examines and compares product features, such as price, functionality, and quality with their expectations.

This is also known as "post-purchase intention". Consumer actions, in this instance, could involve requesting a refund, making a complaint, deciding not to purchase the same brand or from the same company in the future or even spreading negative product reviews to friends or acquaintances, possibly via social media. After acquisition, consumption or disposition, consumers may feel some uncertainty in regards to the decision made, generating in some cases regret.

Post-decision dissonance also known as cognitive dissonance is the term used to describe feelings of anxiety that occur in the post purchase stage; and refers to the consumer's uneasy feelings or concerns as to whether or not the correct decision was made at purchase.

This type of anxiety can affect consumers' subsequent behaviour and may have implications for repeat patronage and customer loyalty. Consumers use a number of strategies to reduce post purchase dissonance. A typical strategy is to look to peers or significant others for validation of the purchase choice. Marketing communications can also be used to remind consumers that they made a wise choice by purchasing Brand X.

When consumers make unfavorable comparisons between the chosen option and the options forgone, they may feel post-decision regret or buyer's remorse. Consumers can also feel short-term regret when they avoid making a purchase decision, however this regret can dissipate over time.

This refers to the formation of hypotheses about the products or a service through prior experience or word of mouth communications. There are four stages that consumers go through in the hypothesis testing: Hypothesis generation, exposure of evidence, encoding of evidence and integration of evidence. Internal influences refer to both personal and interpersonal factors.

Social theory suggests that individuals have both a personal identity and a social identity. Personal identity consists of unique personal characteristics such as skills and capabilities, interests and hobbies. Social identity consists of the individual's perception of the central groups to which an individual belongs and may refer to an age group, a lifestyle group, religious group, educational group or some other reference group. Social psychologists have established that the need to belong is one of the fundamental human needs.

Demographic factors include income level, psychographics lifestyles , age, occupation and socio-economic status. Personality factors include knowledge, attitudes, personal values, beliefs , emotions and feelings. Psychological factors include an individual's motivation , attitudes , personal values and beliefs. Other factors that may affect the purchase decision include the environment and the consumer's prior experience with the category or brand. Social identity factors include culture, sub-culture and reference groups.

The consumer's underlying motivation drives consumer action, including information search and the purchase decision. The consumer's attitude to a brand or brand preference is described as a link between the brand and a purchase motivation.

One approach to understanding motivations, was developed by Abraham Maslow. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is based on five levels of needs, organized accordingly to the level of importance. Maslow's five needs are: Physiological needs and safety needs are the so-called lower order needs. Consumers typically use most of their resources time, energy and finances attempting to satisfy these lower order needs before the higher order needs of belonging, esteem and self-actualization become meaningful.

Part of any marketing program requires an understanding of which motives drive given product choices. Marketing communications can illustrate how a product or brand fulfills these needs. Another approach proposes eight purchase motivations, five negative motives and three positive motives, which energise purchase decisions as illustrated in the table below.

In the marketing literature, the consumer's motivation to search for information and engage in the purchase decision process is sometimes known as involvement. On the other hand, a purchase decision is classified as high involvement when psycho-social risks are perceived to be relatively high.

Part of marketing strategy is to ascertain how consumers gain knowledge and use information from external sources. The perception process is where individuals receive, organize and interpret information in order to attribute some meaning. Perception involves three distinct processes: Sensation is also part of the perception process, and it is linked direct with responses from the senses creating some reaction towards the brand name, advertising and packaging.

The process of perception is uniquely individual and may depend on a combination of internal and external factors such as experiences, expectations, needs and the momentary set. When exposed to a stimulus, consumers may respond in entirely different ways due to individual perceptual processes. Selective exposure occurs when consumers decide whether to be exposed to information inputs. Selective attention occurs when consumers focus on some messages to the exclusion of others.

Selective comprehension is where the consumer interprets information in a manner that is consistent with their own beliefs. Selective retention occurs when consumers remember some information while rapidly forgetting other information.

The way that consumers combine information inputs to arrive at a purchase decision is known as integration. Marketers are interested in consumer perceptions of brands, packaging, product formulations, labeling and pricing.

Of special interest is the threshold of perception also known as the just noticeable difference in a stimulus. For example, how much should a marketer lower a price before consumers recognize it as a bargain? Accordingly, white packaging would be an inappropriate color choice for food labels on products to be marketed in Asia. The consumer's prior experience with the category, product or brand can have a major bearing on purchase decision-making. Experienced consumers also called experts are more sophisticated consumers; they tend to be more skillful information searchers, canvass a broader range of information sources and use complex heuristics to evaluate purchase options.

Novice consumers, on the other hand, are less efficient information searchers and tend to perceive higher levels of purchase risk on account of their unfamiliarity with the brand or category.

When consumers have prior experience, they have less motivation to search for information, spend less effort on information search but can process new information more efficiently.

Purchasing behaviour can also be affected by external influences, such as culture , sub-culture , social class , reference groups , family and situational determinants. Culture is the broadest and most abstract of the external factors. Culture refers to the complexity of learning meanings, values, norms, and customs shared by members of a society.

Cultural norms are relatively stable over time, therefore, culture has a major impact on consumer behaviour. Research studies have consistently shown that culture influences almost every aspect of purchasing: Marketers, interested in global expansion, are especially interested in understanding cross-cultural differences in purchasing and consumption.

For instance, Ferrari, one of the world's top brands found that Chinese consumers are very different from their Western counterparts.

Whereas consumers in the US, UK and Australia expect to wait 12 months for a custom-made Ferrari, prospective Chinese buyers want to drive the vehicle off the showroom floor. Buyers see their friends riding around in a luxury car and want to have the same as quickly as possible.

To meet the growing demand for luxury goods, Ferrari and other luxury car makers have been forced to modify their production processes for Asian markets. Subcultures may be based on age, geographic, religious, racial, and ethnic differences. More often, however, a subculture occurs when people with shared interests form a loose-knit group with a distinctive identity sometimes called consumer tribes.

Members of subcultures are self-selected, and signal their membership status by adopting symbols, rituals or behaviours that are widely understood by other members of the tribe e. For example, within youth culture it is possible to identify a number of sub-groups with common interests such as skaters and bladers, surfers, ravers, punks, skin-heads, Goths, homies and others. A different type of subculture is a consumption subculture which is based on a shared commitment to a common brand or product.

In other words, consumption subcultures cut across demographic, geographic and social boundaries. The most well-known example of a consumption subculture is that of Harley-Davidson motorcycle owners. Ethnographic researchers who have studied Harley riders believe that there are only two types of motor cyclists; namely Harley owners and the rest.

Subcultures are important to marketers for several reasons. Secondly, and perhaps less obviously, many new fads and fashions emerge spontaneously from within these tribal groups. Trend-spotters are accordingly interested in studying the lifestyles and activities of tribes in an effort to spot new trends before they go mainstream. Social class refers to relatively homogenous divisions in a society, typically based on socio-economic variables such as educational attainment, income and occupation.

Social class can be very difficult to define and measure, however marketers around the world tend to use a conventional classification which divides any given population into five socio-economic quintiles e.

AB socio-economic segments are of particular interest to marketers of luxury goods and services such as travel, dining-out, entertainment, luxury cars, investment or wealth management services, up-market consumer electronics and designer labels e. A reference group is defined as "a group whose presumed perspectives or values are being used by an individual as the basis for his or her judgment, opinions, and actions.

The literature identifies five broad types of reference group; primary, secondary, aspirational, dissociative and formal:. Opinion Leaders can act like reference groups in that they exert considerable social influence because of their product knowledge, expertise and credibility. In the marketing literature, opinion leaders are also known as influencers, mavens and even hubs.

Typically, opinion leaders have high levels of involvement with the product category, are heavy users of the category and tend to be early adopters of new technologies within the category.

In order to leverage the value of opinion leaders in marketing strategies, it is important to be able to identify the unique opinion leaders for each category or situation and this can be very challenging. Some techniques that can be used are through key informants, socio-metric techniques and self-questionnaires. Marketers of cosmetics and skincare preparations regularly provide fashion editors with free samples in the hope that their products will be mentioned in fashion magazines.

The family has a great impact on the individual because he learn from his young age how to act as a conscious consumer by acquiring the skills, values and trends of his family environment. As the family plays an important role in the consuming process and affects the behavior of its purchasing members, those interested in marketing should design the advertisements to suit this role.

The role of the husband and wife in the purchasing decisions can be categorized into three types: The goods are purchased by a decision of the wife only. Children play an important role in the family's purchasing processes but their role varies according to the age of the child. Older children tend to consume higher-priced goods such as computers, bedrooms, trips, etc. Situation determinants play an important role in influencing the behavior of the consumer and are factors independent of the individual and its characteristics, and related to the place and time of purchase or consumption, and know that it "The temporal and spatial conditions surrounding the purchasing and consumer position that temporarily affect the behavior of the individual without having to do with his or her personal characteristics or the elements of the marketing mix".

These effects fall into two sets of factors: A number of theorists have argued that certain fundamental decision-making styles can be identified. Based on these factors, the authors developed a typology of eight distinct decision-making styles: The Consumer Styles Inventory CSI has been extensively tested and retested in a wide variety of countries and purchasing contexts.

In addition to understanding the purchasing decision, marketers are interested a number of different aspects of consumer behaviour that occur before, during and after making a purchase choice.

Areas of particular interest include: The consumer's perceptions of risk are a major consideration in the pre-purchase stage of the purchasing decision. Perceived risk is defined as "the consumer's perceptions of the uncertainty and adverse consequences of engaging in an activity". The marketing literature identifies many different types of risk, of which five are the most frequently cited: If a consumer perceives a purchase to be risky, he or she will engage in strategies to reduce the perceived risk until it is within their tolerance levels or, if they are unable to do so, withdraw from the purchase.

Services marketers have argued that risk perception is higher for services because they lack the search attributes of products i. Experience goods, such as restaurants and clubs, can only be evaluated with certainty after purchase or consumption.

In the case of credence goods, such as many professional services, the consumer finds it difficult to fully appreciate the quality of the goods even after purchase and consumption has occurred. Difficulties evaluating quality after consumption may arise because the cost of obtaining information is prohibitive, or because the consumer lacks the requisite skills and knowledge to undertake such evaluations.

Typical risk-reduction strategies used include: Within consumer behaviour, a particular area of interest is the study of how innovative new products, services, ideas or technologies spread through groups. Insights about how innovations are diffused i. In addition, diffusion models provide benchmarks against which new product introductions can be tracked. A sizeable body of literature has been devoted to the diffusion of innovation.

However, the exact shape and timing of curves varies in different product markets such that some innovations are diffused relatively quickly, while others can take many years to achieve broad market acceptance. The diffusion model developed by Everett Rogers is widely used in consumer marketing because it segments consumers into five groups, based on their rate of new product adoption.

An innovation is any new idea, object or process that is perceived as new by members of the social system. Communication channels are the means by which information about the innovation is transmitted to members of the social system and may include mass media, digital media and personal communications between members of the social system. Time refers to the rate at which the innovation is picked up by the members of the social system.

A number of factors contribute to the rate at which innovations are diffused through a social community. Innovations with some or all of these factors are more likely to be adopted quickly. Accordingly, marketing communications may stress the innovation's relative benefits over other solutions to the consumer's problem. Marketing messages may also focus on compatibility and observability.

Marketers can also facilitate adoption by offering limited scale trial e. Studies have shown that the diffusion rate for many new technologies is speeding up. It involves studying marketing principles, human psychology and the complex attitudes which influence buyer decisions. However, the challenging factor multiplies if you had left things up to the last minute.

As a result, the simple task of coming up with a title for your essay will be problematic. Do not worry though; the following lines are here to help. Here is a list of 20 topics which will help you write a great critical thinking essay on consumer behavior. You can use these as is or merge two inter-related ones if you think you can do them justice. You can also use these 20 titles for inspiration and come up with your own unique topic.

A word of advice: Though it would have been much easier for us to come up with narrow topics, we focused on broader perspectives to easily customize each topic. To effectively narrow down the scope:. If you are still having trouble with selecting a topic, check out our list of 13 facts on consumer behavior for a critical thinking essay.

You will find a ton of interesting facts which will greatly help you while drafting your essay. Still need a nudge? Then here is a sample critical essay on consumer behavior. Use it as an example or as a template for your assignment. The more detailed guide on how to write a critical thinking essay on consumer behavior will further ensure that you get a great grade for your essay.

Not long ago, consumers used to focus simply on products functions or attributes before selecting a place to shop at. This has changed recently as now consumers demand added beneficial elements. One aspect which they desire the most is a pleasant atmosphere as they shop. It can also be described as a design which produces emotional effects on the buyer, enhancing their purchasing probability.

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Jun 21,  · 20 Great Topics: Consumer Behavior Dissertation Ideas coachoutleta.cf shopping. Why do people shop online? What are the .

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Consumer behavior research often focuses on the purchasing process, but perhaps just as significant is how the consumer uses the product. This kind of research helps determine marketing and advertising angles, and it gives the manufacturer ideas on possible improvements to make.

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If you want to know how to choose a fresh topic for your dissertation on consumer behavior, be sure to read the following tutorial that may be useful. The findings of this study highlight the most important consumer behavior topics and the most influential articles in the field based on citation frequency. The number of topics studied in consumer behavior showed a dramatic growth and revealed some general patterns during the 12 years studied in this article.

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These critical thinking essay topics on consumer behavior will help you choose or compose one on your own. Check them, there is also a sample essay attached. High School Essay Papers For Sale Research Paper Topics Write My Paper Narrative Essay Essay Writer Free Papers. An endless and diverse field of research and applications, consumer behavior considers such areas as buying decision-making, internal influences, and external influences on the consumer. An understanding of consumer behavior can lead to improved marketing strategies on the part of firms and organizations, and can also lead to improved public .