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Formation of odorous and hazardous by-products from the chlorination of amino acids Zuo Tong How Kathryn L. Enhancement of anaerobic digestion sludge dewatering performance using in-situ crystallization in combination with cationic organic polymers flocculation Qiandi Wang Weijun Zhang Precipitation, evaporation, freezing and melting and condensation are all part of the hydrological cycle - a never-ending global process of water circulation from clouds to land, to the ocean, and back to the clouds.
This cycling of water is intimately linked with energy exchanges among the atmosphere, ocean, and land that determine the Earth's climate and cause much of natural climate variability.
The impacts of climate change and variability on the quality of human life occur primarily through changes in the water cycle. The ocean plays a key role in this vital cycle of water. Besides affecting the amount of atmospheric water vapor and hence rainfall, evaporation from the sea surface is important in the movement of heat in the climate system.
Water evaporates from the surface of the ocean, mostly in warm, cloud-free subtropical seas. This cools the surface of the ocean, and the large amount of heat absorbed the ocean partially buffers the greenhouse effect from increasing carbon dioxide and other gases. Water vapor carried by the atmosphere condenses as clouds and falls as rain, mostly in the ITCZ, far from where it evaporated, Condensing water vapor releases latent heat and this drives much of the the atmospheric circulation in the tropics.
The major physical components of the global water cycle include the evaporation from the ocean and land surfaces, the transport of water vapor by the atmosphere, precipitation onto the ocean and land surfaces, the net atmospheric transport of water from land areas to ocean, and the return flow of fresh water from the land back into the ocean. The additional components of oceanic water transport are few, including the mixing of fresh water through the oceanic boundary layer, transport by ocean currents, and sea ice processes.
On land the situation is considerably more complex, and includes the deposition of rain and snow on land; water flow in runoff; infiltration of water into the soil and groundwater; storage of water in soil, lakes and streams, and groundwater; polar and glacial ice; and use of water in vegetation and human activities.
Illustration of the water cycle showing the ocean, land, mountains, and rivers returning to the ocean. Evaporation "E" controls the loss of fresh water and precipitation "P" governs most of the gain of fresh water. Scientists monitor the relationship between these two primary processes in the oceans. Inputs from rivers and melting ice can also contribute to fresh water gains. Evaporation minus precipitation is usually referred to as the net flux of fresh water or the total fresh water in or out of the oceans.
E-P determines surface salinity of the ocean, which helps determine the stability of the water column. Salinity and temperature determine the density of ocean water, and density influences the circulation. Precipitation also affects the height of the ocean surface indirectly via salinity and density.
The ocean surface is constantly being stirred up by wind and changes in density or buoyancy. The ocean naturally has different physical characteristics with depth.
As depth increases, temperature decreases because the sun only heats surface waters. Warm water is lighter or more buoyant than cold water, so the warm surface water stays near the surface. The water molecule is considered a polar molecule because the positive and negative regions are not evenly distributed around a center point.
The water molecule due to its polar nature is electrostatically attracted to other water molecules as well as other ions in solution. The attraction of the electropositive hydrogen atom to the electronegative oxygen atom of an adjacent water molecule is the bridging phenomenon known as hydrogen bonding and is only about 10 percent the strengths of a covalent bond.
This special bond is responsible for most of the unusual properties of water: Let us look more closely at the bonding patterns of water. Polar Covalent Bond When oxygen and hydrogen atoms are brought together the difference in their electronegativities is not sufficient to yield ions. Instead they must share a pair of electrons between them forming a covalent bond.
This results in a concentration of negative charges nearer the oxygen atom and thus further from the positively charges protons that make the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms. The bond formed is intermediate between a fully ionic bond and a purely covalent bond.
There is a separation of charges but not complete as in the formation of ions. The partial charge that is produced is symbolized by d. In Water, one side of the molecule, where the hydrogen atoms are, will be partially positively charged. The other side with the unshared pairs of electrons will be negatively charged. As a whole the molecule is polar.
So it can be said that the water molecule has a polar covalent bond. The polarity of the water molecule makes mutual attraction between water molecules possible. This means that each water molecule attracts four other water molecules to it. The hydrogen atom is attracted to the oxygen atom of the adjacent water molecule. Each oxygen atom can associate with two hydrogen atoms of other nearby water molecule through its unshared pair of electrons.
The force of attraction between these polar molecules is not as strong as a covalent or ionic bond but strong enough to be significant. It is the hydrogen bonding that occurs between water molecules that accounts for many of the remarkable and vital properties of water that make the presence of water synonymous with life itself.
Firstly, the ability of water to remain liquid over a large portion of the range of temperatures found on earth is one such vital property. Other molecules, as small as water eg CO2 , change from liquid to gas at temperatures far below that of water. It is also the Hydrogen bond which is responsible for the large amount of heat energy needed to convert water from liquid to gas. Water is therefore a great stabilizer of temperature which is essential to the survival of life on this planet.
It accounts for more moderate temperatures near large bodies of water. This property is also exploited by many living organisms. Sweat, and its evaporation is a vital cooling process for biological mammals and depend greatly on the large amount of heat energy required to break the hydrogen bonds between water molecules.
Hydrogen bonding maintains the integrity of the water molecule during chemical reactions. Other compounds undergo chemical changes ionization , where as water will maintain its chemical integrity. As a result water is a poor conductor of electrical current. In conclusion, three main unique features which are the consequences of hydrogen bonding in water are: These and other unique properties of water are responsible for the important role that water plays in life.
It provides the medium in which most biochemical interactions occur. Some biochemical reactions water is involved in are: Water is the home for many animals, plants and micro-organisms.
Water is involved in the cycling of all other material by living things both on a local and global scale. Water has a number of unique and unusual properties that are responsible for its important roles it plays in the biosphere. Water has unusually high boiling and freezing points compared to other compounds with similar molecular structure. A comparison of boiling and freezing points can be seen in the following chart.
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Water Cycle Earth's water is always in movement, and the water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth.
The Water Cycle - Descriptive Essay Example The Earth is composed of 71% water in different states: solid, liquid or gas. It circulates in the atmosphere keeping a delicate balance of temperature and sustaining life on the planet. Research paper on the water cycle septiembre 13, Uncategorized Too much wine, so i don't think essay writing will be brilliant. i think making a coffee would be a good idea and also waste more time.
The hydrologic cycle, commonly known as the water cycle or the H2O cycle, is one of the most important processes happening on Earth to keep living beings. 1. Challenges and Opportunities in Water Cycle Research: WCRP Contributions. Kevin E. Trenberth. 1. and Ghassem R. Asrar. 2. National Center for Atmospheric Research.