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Research Paper on Diseases

Fundamental Research

❶Most people become infected through tick bites during the spring and summer months. People become infected when their skin comes into contact with the contaminated freshwater.

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Group A streptococcal GAS infections can range from a mild skin infection or a sore throat to severe, life-threatening conditions.

Most people are familiar with strep throat, which along with minor skin infections, is the most common form of the disease. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis, but the condition can also be caused by other infections, heavy alcohol use, toxins, certain medications, and autoimmune disease. Hepatitis A and E are typically caused by ingesting contaminated food or water. Type B commonly occurs through contact with infected blood, semen or other bodily fluid through sex, sharing needles or other drug-injection equipment or from mother to baby at birth.

The destruction of these cells leaves people living with HIV vulnerable to other infections, diseases and other complications. As the leading U. People with autosomal dominant hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome HIES have recurrent bacterial infections of the skin and lungs. Patients with HIES typically also have eczema, distinct facial features, and a tendency to experience bone fractures.

Influenza, or flu, is a contagious respiratory infection caused by several flu viruses that infect the nose, throat and lungs. People infected with the seasonal flu virus feel miserable with fever, chills, muscle aches, coughing, congestion, headache and fatigue for a week or so. Most people who get the flu get better within two weeks, but some people may develop serious complications, such as pneumonia.

Pandemic influenza is when a new flu virus strain occurs that can spread easily from person-to-person and the virus is one for which most people have no immunity. Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by the bites of infected sand flies.

It is found in nearly 88 countries, from rain forests in Central and South America to deserts in the Middle East and west Asia. Some cases of the disease have also appeared in Mexico and Texas. The disease takes several different forms, including the most common cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores, and the more severe visceral leishmaniasis also known as kala azar , which affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow.

Leprosy Hansen's Disease is a chronic infectious disease that primarily affects the peripheral nerves, skin, upper respiratory tract, eyes, and nasal mucosa lining of the nose. The disease is caused by a bacillus rod-shaped bacterium known as Mycobacterium leprae.

It is the most common tickborne infectious disease in the United States. Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease that can cause infected people to become very sick with high fever, chills, and flu-like illness.

It can also cause death. Substantial progress has been made globally to control and eliminate malaria, but it continues to be a significant public health problem with roughly 3. Most people infected with MERS-CoV developed severe acute respiratory illness, including fever, cough, and shortness of breath; many of them died. Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV , also a severe viral respiratory illness, was first reported in Asia in February and spread to dozens of countries before being contained.

Since , there have been no known SARS cases. Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory disease. It is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis is known for uncontrollable, violent coughing that often makes it hard to breathe. Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis , is a disease that affects humans and other mammals.

People typically get infected after being bitten by a rodent flea that is carrying the bacterium or by handling a plague-infected animal. Although the disease killed millions in Europe during the Middle Ages, antibiotics effectively treat plague today.

Without prompt treatment, plague can cause serious illness or death. Human plague infections continue to occur in the western United States, but significantly more cases occur in parts of Africa and Asia. Primary immune deficiency diseases PIDDs are rare, genetic disorders that impair the immune system. Without a functional immune response, people with PIDDs may be subject to chronic, debilitating infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus EBV , which can increase the risk of developing cancer.

Some PIDDs can be fatal. PIDDs may be diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adulthood, depending on disease severity. Prion diseases are a related group of rare, fatal brain diseases that affect animals and humans. Respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV, is a respiratory virus that infects the lungs and breathing passages. Healthy people typically experience mild, cold-like symptoms and recover in a week or two.

However, RSV can be serious, particularly for infants and the elderly. RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis inflammation of the small airways in the lung and pneumonia in children younger than 1 year of age in the United States. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tickborne disease first recognized in in the Snake River Valley of Idaho.

It was a dreaded, often fatal disease, affecting hundreds of people in Idaho. Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a neglected tropical disease caused by parasitic worms. It is second only to malaria as the most devastating parasitic disease.

The parasites that cause schistosomiasis live in certain types of freshwater snails. The infectious form of the parasite emerge from the snail and then contaminate the water.

People become infected when their skin comes into contact with the contaminated freshwater. Most human infections are caused by Schistosoma mansoni, S. Sexually transmitted diseases STDs are infections transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected person through sexual contact. STDs can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Shigellosis is an infectious, diarrheal disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella. It is transmitted via contact with contaminated food, water, surfaces or an infected person.

The disease typically resolves in 5 to 7 days. This ongoing expertise has helped establish us as a leader in the emerging field of survivorship care, education and research.

Fundamental Research Our researchers investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind disease. Make landmark discoveries about key biological processes. Linda Buck received a Nobel Prize for her work identifying the neurological mechanisms that govern the sense of smell. Discovered the mechanisms responsible for making cells grow and divide -- a breakthrough that in earned former Fred Hutch President and Director Emeritus Dr.

Lee Hartwell a Nobel Prize. Win science's most prestigious awards. Prevention Our prevention researchers make discoveries that allow people to lead healthier lives. Serving as the coordinating center for the Women's Health Initiative , a nationwide study designed to address the most frequent causes of death, disability and poor quality of life in older women.

Key contributions to the development of the HPV vaccine , which helps prevent cervical cancer. Innovative research on how exercise reduces cancer risk , laying the groundwork for health strategies that could prevent the disease. Some of the world's most comprehensive studies on how eating some foods may affect cancer risk. Early Detection Our investigators develop blood tests that could detect cancers in their most treatable stages.

In addition to leading an international project to discover new cancer biomarkers, our investigators: Pursue breakthrough blood tests that could improve early detection of breast cancer.

Discover new proteins that signal lung cancer's emergence and develop tests that can detect lung cancer long before symptoms appear. Reveal genetic mutations that illuminate why some prostate cancers are lethal and identify variants associated with drug-resistant prostate cancer. These discoveries could improve early detection and determine who needs aggressive treatment. Pursue breakthrough genetic tests for colon cancer , with hopes of identifying it at the earliest possible moment. Spearhead immunotherapies that use the immune system to boost the body's ability to fight off cancer.

Our researchers were the first to use immunotherapy to put advanced melanoma into long-term remission. Uncover how and why pancreatic cancer is resistant to conventional treatment , allowing researchers to begin studying a new approach to therapy that could boost survival rates.

Survivorship Fred Hutch leads a nationwide effort to help survivors flourish in their lives after cancer. Lead one of the nation's first Survivorship Programs , where researchers learn more about cancer treatment's long-term effects.

Learn why survivors suffer severe musculoskeletal pain and other ailments, with hopes of developing new treatments. Conduct advanced research on how to maximize childhood cancer survivors' quality of life. Research News Lifesaving Impact Fred Hutch scientists conduct important and impactful research, and their findings have revolutionized prevention, detection and treatment for cancer and other diseases.

Featured Researcher Stanley Riddell "Tumors are very clever, and they utilize evasion strategies to limit the effectiveness of the immune response," Dr. T cells specially engineered to seek and destroy cancer. See the technologies available.

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