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Politics and the English Language

Introduction to Indian Politics

❶He had no intention to indulge the religious matter. It is part of his Essays:

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A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. It is rather the same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts.

Orwell discusses "pretentious diction" and "meaningless words". Orwell chooses five passages of text which "illustrate various of the mental vices from which we now suffer. From these, Orwell identifies a "catalogue of swindles and perversions" which he classifies as "dying metaphors", "operators or verbal false limbs", "pretentious diction" and "meaningless words".

Orwell notes that writers of modern prose tend not to write in concrete terms but use a "pretentious latinized style" compare Anglish. He claims writers find it is easier to gum together long strings of words than to pick words specifically for their meaning—particularly in political writing, where Orwell notes that "[o]rthodoxy Political speech and writing are generally in defence of the indefensible and so lead to a euphemistic inflated style.

Orwell criticises bad writing habits which spread by imitation. He argues that writers must think more clearly because thinking clearly "is a necessary first step toward political regeneration". He later emphasises that he was not "considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought". As a further example, Orwell "translates" Ecclesiastes 9: I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all.

Objective consideration of contemporary phenomena compels the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. Orwell points out that this "translation" contains many more syllables but gives no concrete illustrations, as the original did, nor does it contain any vivid, arresting images or phrases.

The headmaster's wife at St Cyprian's School , Mrs. Cicely Vaughan Wilkes nicknamed "Flip" , taught English to Orwell and used the same method to illustrate good writing to her pupils. She would use simple passages from the King James Bible and then "translate" them into poor English to show the clarity and brilliance of the original. Orwell said it was easy for his contemporaries to slip into bad writing of the sort he had described and that the temptation to use meaningless or hackneyed phrases was like a "packet of aspirins always at one's elbow".

In particular, such phrases are always ready to form the writer's thoughts for him, to save him the bother of thinking—or writing—clearly. However, he concluded that the progressive decline of the English language was reversible [6] and suggested six rules which, he claimed, would prevent many of these faults, although "one could keep all of them and still write bad English".

From the time of his wife's death in March Orwell had maintained a high work rate, producing some literary contributions, many of them lengthy. Animal Farm had been published in August and Orwell was experiencing a time of critical and commercial literary success. It is the duty of the Politicians to check corruption, nepotism, crisis in politics and ethnic problems. They should work to bring communal harmony. They should exercise wisdom in every work of national politics.

They should practice ethical culture. The political parties should try to build confidence of political wisdom by their good work. People go to vote but they have unpopular leaders of popular parties. Only symbols are elected not politicians. They may devalue the public-moral and erode the very essence of democracy. Money also plays a dominant role in the Indian politics, especially during election.

For normal essay questions on exams say, those in which you have an hour to complete two essays , you should have no more than three or four paragraphs in the body of the essay. Each paragraph should make a clear and discrete point, and that point should support your overall argument. Your thoughts in the body of the essay should follow on logically from the points you set out in the opening paragraph. And each paragraph should begin just like the opening paragraph, with a clear statement of the topic that the paragraph will address.

Sum up what you have said in the essay in a final paragraph. Remind the reader of your main point, but avoid repeating it in exactly the same words. End the essay with a sentence that wraps up your thoughts and leaves the reader with a sense of closure. After sitting in a course of lectures and doing the required reading, you are more than capable of completing such a task.

Again, essays are not simply receptacles for regurgitated factual information. At the college level, however, you are expected to think. And thinking requires creatively using the knowledge you have acquired to take a clear position on a contentious issue.

How do you do all that? Here a few guidelines: Stake out a position. Argue for a particular point of view. Use relevant facts, concepts and other information to buttress the points you wish to make.

Throwing in irrelevant information will impress no one. How creatively you make your argument is always important. Some professors may even prefer essays that are well-structured and well-written but not particularly brilliant, to those that contain a truly original insight cloaked in language that would make Webster and Fowler turn in their graves.

Writing a sonnet or a short one-act play is probably not a good idea. You should, however, bring all your skills as a writer to bear on the essay topic. If you write page after page of text, but never really address the issue at hand, few professors are likely to give you much credit.

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The world “politics” represents the diverse world of relationships, activities, behavior, orientation, views and communication links regarding government and governance. The main subject of the politics is the social (ethnic) group with its political organizations, institutions, movements and leaders.

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