Citations in this section should be limited to data sources and references of where to find more complete descriptions of procedures. Do not include descriptions of results. Results The results are actual statements of observations, including statistics, tables and graphs. Indicate information on range of variation. Mention negative results as well as positive. Do not interpret results - save that for the discussion.
Lay out the case as for a jury. Present sufficient details so that others can draw their own inferences and construct their own explanations. Break up your results into logical segments by using subheadings Key results should be stated in clear sentences at the beginning of paragraphs. Describe the nature of the findings; do not just tell the reader whether or not they are significant.
Writing for an Audience Who is your audience? Researchers working in analogous field areas elsewhere in the world i. Researchers working in your field area, but with different techniques.
Researchers working on the same interval of geologic time elsewhere in the world. All other researchers using the same technique you have used. If your study encompasses an active process, researchers working on the same process in the ancient record. Conversely, if your study is based on the rock record, people studying modem analogs.
People writing a synthesis paper on important new developments in your field. People applying earth science to societal problems i. Potential reviewers of your manuscript or your thesis committee. Planning Ahead for Your Thesis. Writing for an Audience. Writing for an International Audience. Abstract A good abstract explains in one line why the paper is important.
It then goes on to give a summary of your major results, preferably couched in numbers with error limits. The final sentences explain the major implications of your work. A good abstract is concise, readable, and quantitative. Absrtracts generally do not have citations. Information in title should not be repeated. Use numbers where appropriate. Answers to these questions should be found in the abstract: What did you do? Why did you do it? What question were you trying to answer? How did you do it?
What did you learn? Why does it matter? Point out at least one significant implication. Table of Contents list all headings and subheadings with page numbers indent subheadings it will look something like this: How do you do this? Physical separation into different sections or paragraphs. Don't overlay interpretation on top of data in figures. Careful use of phrases such as "We infer that ". Don't worry if "results" seem short. Easier for your reader to absorb, frequent shifts of mental mode not required.
Ensures that your work will endure in spite of shifting paradigms. Discussion Start with a few sentences that summarize the most important results. The discussion section should be a brief essay in itself, answering the following questions and caveats: What are the major patterns in the observations?
Refer to spatial and temporal variations. What are the relationships, trends and generalizations among the results? What are the exceptions to these patterns or generalizations? What are the likely causes mechanisms underlying these patterns resulting predictions?
Is there agreement or disagreement with previous work? Interpret results in terms of background laid out in the introduction - what is the relationship of the present results to the original question?
What is the implication of the present results for other unanswered questions in earth sciences, ecology, environmental policy, etc?
There are usually several possible explanations for results. Be careful to consider all of these rather than simply pushing your favorite one. If you can eliminate all but one, that is great, but often that is not possible with the data in hand. In that case you should give even treatment to the remaining possibilities, and try to indicate ways in which future work may lead to their discrimination. A special case of the above. Avoid jumping a currently fashionable point of view unless your results really do strongly support them.
What are the things we now know or understand that we didn't know or understand before the present work? Include the evidence or line of reasoning supporting each interpretation. What is the significance of the present results: This section should be rich in references to similar work and background needed to interpret results.
Is there material that does not contribute to one of the elements listed above? If so, this may be material that you will want to consider deleting or moving. Break up the section into logical segments by using subheads. Conclusions What is the strongest and most important statement that you can make from your observations?
If you met the reader at a meeting six months from now, what do you want them to remember about your paper? Refer back to problem posed, and describe the conclusions that you reached from carrying out this investigation, summarize new observations, new interpretations, and new insights that have resulted from the present work. Include the broader implications of your results. Do not repeat word for word the abstract, introduction or discussion. Recommendations Include when appropriate most of the time Remedial action to solve the problem.
Further research to fill in gaps in our understanding. Directions for future investigations on this or related topics. Simpson and Hays cite more than double-author references by the surname of the first author followed by et al. Pfirman, Simpson and Hays would be: Here is one way that could be done for the second option—family structure.
The literature on family structure can be divided into six categories focusing on 1 family members' roles, 2 types of human needs met within different family structures, 3 nuclear and extended forms of family, 4 lineage and governance i. The present study links the second and fifth of these categories by addressing the question: What changes have occurred in the structure and functions of Mexican-American families during the twentieth century, and what trends do such changes reflect"In addition, by centering attention on a particular ethnic group—Mexican-Americans—the study provides material useful to people interested in the last of the categories, that of cross-cultural comparisons.
This function is typically performed by the author's identifying shortcomings in the existing body of knowledge or practice that could be remedied by the proposed research.
As noted in Chapter 1, contributions can be of various kinds, including. Outcomes derived from applying existing theories or methods of investigation to events, individuals, groups, or institutions not yet studied in such a fashion.
The following examples illustrate two ways of wording research proposals so that they a specify the question to be answered, b locate the study in a domain of knowledge or practice, and c identify the study's intended contribution. Double Encryption Security System guarantees no one can access your private data or credit card info. We deal with academic writing, creative writing, and non-word assignments.
Defining Key Terms Thesis Hhypothesis. Synonyms Describing your data collection methods. Providing A Rationale A rationale typically consists of a line of reasoning that performs two principal functions. Roles for the Rationale The rationale plays a role at two stages of your project: Preview a Paper Sample From essay, assignments and personal statements to case studies.
How does one write a good thesis paper? Read the following steps:. Perhaps the thesis and dissertation, more than any other type of proposal or paper, are two papers that require a strict structure. Before starting to write a thesis paper every candidate should learn the main parts that every thesis should include.
Your experience writing a proposal probably informed you about most of these: These are sections that have to be written and included in your thesis paper. In our thesis writing guide we will provide a little bit more detail in terms of the guidelines and techniques for handling some sections that usually cause more trouble than others.
When writing a thesis paper do not forget that average length should reach about 40 pages. The title is such an easy part and yet one that leads to so many mistakes made by students.
We believe that it is caused by some differences between a usual academic paper's title and thesis title. To make sure you develop the best possible title, just make sure you give these items: Follow the requirements of formatting that your institution provides.
In terms of the title itself, try to be creative without being too showy.
The thesis focuses your ideas and information for the research paper. Remember that word "focus." Student writers often make the mistake of forgetting the focus and making the research thesis far too broad in order to include a lot of research.
Before writing your thesis statement, come up with a generalized statement that you want your readers to learn by reading your research paper. The rest of your research paper will defend your thesis statement.
Without finding out how to write a thesis for a research paper, a student will never learn how to master this type of academic writing. Our brief yet detailed tutorial explains what a thesis is, its elements, importance, and usage. We also share some great examples of powerful thesis statements. We all know that thesis for a research paper is very important. Thesis statement conveys the main debatable idea - the last sentence or two .
You can search for research papers examples prepared for similar areas of science, but even if their topics are not similar to yours, you still use them to learn how to write a thesis statement for a research paper. As you proceed to the research and writing stages, it will gradually become apparent whether your trial thesis is ready for prime time, or if it needs further work. The following examples can help you further tell the difference between a weak and a .