Sometimes these rules intersect in ways that may make a sentence look awkward; in the sentence below, it is correct to use a word for ninth and numerals for 10th and 11th , and although there is nothing wrong with this from an APA Style perspective, it may set off internal alarm bells for you. Often the awkwardness can be resolved by rephrasing the sentence.
Although this is not required, it may make you feel happier about your writing, and we are all for you feeling happy about your writing. For more on numeral usage, see Sections 4. If you have additional questions about how to write about grades in APA Style, leave a question in the comments section. Posted by Chelsea Lee at Twelfth-grade students received diplomas at graduation. The first-grade students went on a field trip.
The first graders… If several ordinal grades are presented in a series of compound adjectives, then use hyphens with each. The sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students go to a middle school. Students in ninth, 10th, and 11th grades [this is correct] Often the awkwardness can be resolved by rephrasing the sentence. Students in Grades 9, 10, and 11 [this is also correct] For more on numeral usage, see Sections 4. Much of the information you need to create a print book citation can be found on the title page.
The title page is found within the first couple of pages of the book. See more across the site. A chapter is a specific section, or segment, of a book.
Chapters often have their own title or they are numbered. Much of the information you will need to create a chapter in a print book citation can be found on the title page. You will also need some of the information found on the table of contents. The chapter title, author, and page numbers can be found there.
The night of MidAutumn Festival. An e-book is a written work or composition that has been digitized and is readable through computers or e-readers such as Kindles, iPads, Nooks, etc. Title of work [E-reader version]. Dracula [Kindle HDX version]. Retrieved from URL or http: However, you must include an in-text citation anytime you reference these texts in your writing.
For the in-text citation, when quoting or paraphrasing specific excerpts from the text, include the information about the specific verse, line, page, etc. If the version of the religious text you are using is relevant, mention it in the first reference in your writing. This can be as either a general reference or a formal in-text citation. Remember, you only need to cite the version of the religious text used in the first general reference or in-text citation of the source.
In all other instances, leave it out. Scholarly, or academic, journals are often created for specific fields or disciplines.
In journal citations, journal titles are written in title case and followed by the volume number. Both of these fields should be italicized. Database information and the retrieval date are not required in journal article citations. Is social media too social for class? A case study of Twitter use. Tech Trends , 57 2 , A newspaper is a daily or weekly publication that contains news; often featuring articles on political events, crime, business, art, entertainment, society, and sports.
Year, Month Day of Publication. Newspaper Title , pp. Bills target Lake Erie mussels. Pittsburgh Press , p. Flu shots may reduce risk of heart attacks, strokes and even death. Most articles in magazines are relatively short in length compared to journals and often contain colorful images. Year, Month of Publication. Magazine Title, Volume number Issue number , page range. The volume number can be found on the publication information page of the magazine. Page numbers are typically found on the bottom corners of an article.
If issue number is not provided, omit it from the citation. TIME, , Magazine Title , Volume number Issue number. The volume and issue number may not be on the same page as the article. Browse the website before omitting it from the citation.
Need further help with your magazine citations? An online blog generally revolves around one specific subject matter and contains text or graphics that are added by an individual, group, or organization. Individual blog posts are regularly added to a blog site. Year, Month, Day of Publication. Title of blog post [Blog post]. Senate control in increasingly looks like a tossup [Blog post]. Most websites revolve around a topic or theme.
There are news websites, sports, research, shopping, and many other types of websites. Note that many sources have citation structures for their online versions e. Check the other formats on this page to see if there is a specific citation type in an online format that matches your source.
Title of web page [Format]. Only include information about the format in brackets if the website is a unique type of document, such as a PDF. The first free wireless plan is finally here. Only italicize the title if it stands alone such as a singular online document or complete report.
A tweet is a post that is made on the social media site, Twitter. Year, Month Day of Posting. Text of tweet [Tweet]. The Patriots are always many moves ahead of every other NFL team. YouTube is a popular website that displays videos that are uploaded by individuals and companies.
Video title [Video file]. When I grow up [Video file]. Musical recordings are musical audio clips, songs, or albums. Many are found online and listened to digitally. Song title [Recorded by F. On Album title [Audio file]. Only include the information about the individual or band who performs the song if it is different than the name of the author, or songwriter.
Red Hot Chili Peppers. On Stadium arcadium [Audio file]. We suggest following the book format when citing sheet music. After the title of the piece, indicate that you are citing sheet music by way of using a descriptor like [Sheet music], [Libretto], or [Musical score].
One major difference between a book and sheet music is that sheet music is written by a composer, not an author. You can specify this fact if you would like, by formatting the beginning of the citation like this: Or, treat the composer like an author by not including the word composer in parentheses.
Additionally, sheet music can come as individual work or it can be part of a collection or book. Fur Elise [Sheet music]. Title of film [Format]. The format is placed in brackets directly after the title. It can be either DVD, video file, or another medium that the film is found on.
Looking for a free APA citation creator? To cite an individual television episode or radio podcast or broadcast streamed online, use the following structure: Title of individual episode or podcast [Television series episode or podcast]. Simple explanation [Television series episode]. Attanasio Producer , House, M. Title of television series or podcast series [Television series or podcast series].
Game of thrones, season 7 [Television series]. The EasyBib citation builder automatically cites your TV, radio broadcast, and podcast sources for you! A thesis is a document submitted to earn a degree at a university. A dissertation is a document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university. Many theses and dissertations can be found on databases. For this specific source type, include the name of the database in the citation. Retrieved from Database Title.
Order number or Accession number. Viral structures in literature and new media Doctoral dissertation. If the thesis or dissertation is found on a website, use this structure: Pedagogical practices in the teaching of English language in secondary public schools in Parker County Doctoral dissertation.
Title of conference paper. Paper presented at the meeting of Name of Organization, Place of Meeting. Reference lists only include works that can be found by the reader. Instead, a personal interview should be referenced as a parenthetical citation. Smith, personal communication, June 18,
Looking for help with APA Style ®? We urge you to start with the following resources: Refer to The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association ; Read the Frequently Asked Questions; View the Free Tutorial on the Basics of APA Style; Search for topic-specific help in the Learning Resources section.
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For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 nd printing). Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA. APA Writing Guidelines & Help The IIRP Graduate School uses American Psychological Association (APA) writing style for presenting ideas and data, formatting papers, and citing sources in student assignments and scholarly publications.
APA style, or APA format are the terms commonly used to describe the writing style guidelines which are developed, maintained, and periodically revised and updated by the American Psychological Association (APA). The American Psychological Association or APA Writing Format is one of the most widely used formats in writing academic papers, particularly in the field of science.